# Imbalance Difference Modeling Bibliography

Imbalance Difference Modeling is a powerful method for describing and quantifying the conversion of differential-mode signals to common-mode noise (or the conversion of common-mode interference to differential-mode signals paths). It was introduced as a tool for EMC modeling in 2000. Since then it has been used to analyze a wide variety of complex EMC configurations, including circuit boards connected to multi-wire cable harnesses. You can find a brief introduction to Imbalance Difference Modeling here.

The bibliography below is a comprehensive list of publications that describe or employ Imbalance Difference Modeling to solve EMC problems. If you are aware of publications that should be added to this list, please forward citations to

### Books and Journal Publications

- H. Uchida, Fundamentals of Coupled Lines and Multiwire Antennas, Sasaki Printing and Publishing, pp. 37-39, 1967.
- T. Watanabe, O. Wada, T. Miyashita, and R. Koga, “Common-Mode-Current Generation Caused by Difference of Unbalance of Transmission Lines on a Printed Circuit Board with Narrow Ground Pattern,” IEICE Trans. Commun., vol. E83-B, no. 3, pp. 593–599, Mar. 2000.
- T. Watanabe, H. Fujihara, O. Wada, R. Koga, and Y. Kami, “A Prediction Method of Common-Mode Excitation on a Printed Circuit Board Having a Signal Trace near the Ground Edge,” IEICE Trans. Commun., vol. E87-B, no. 8, pp. 2327–2334, Aug. 2004.
- O. Wada, “Modeling and simulation of unintended electromagnetic emission from digital circuits,” Electron. Commun. Japan (Part I Commun., vol. 87, no. 8, pp. 38–46, Aug. 2004.
- T. Matsushima, T. Watanabe, Y. Toyota, R. Koga, and O. Wada, “Evaluation of EMI Reduction Effect of Guard Traces Based on Imbalance Difference Model,” IEICE Trans. Commun., vol. E92-B, no. 6, pp. 2193–2200, Jun. 2009.
- T. Matsushima, T. Watanabe, Y. Toyota, R. Koga, and O. Wada, “Increase of Common-Mode Radiation due to Guard Trace Voltage and Determination of Effective Via-Location,” IEICE Trans. Commun., vol. E92-B, no. 6, pp. 1929–1936, Jun. 2009.
- T. Matsushima, T. Watanabe, Y. Toyota, R. Koga, and O. Wada, "Calculation of Common-mode Radiation from Single-channel Differential Signaling System Using Imbalance Difference Model," IEICE Trans. Commun., vol. E93-B, no. 7, pp. 1739-1745, Jul. 2010.
- T. Watanabe, T. Matsushima, Y. Toyota, R. Koga, and O. Wada, "Suppression of Guard-trace Resonance by Matched Termination for Reducing Common-mode Radiation," IEICE Trans. Commun., vol. E93-B, no. 7, pp. 1746-1753, Jul. 2010.
- C. Su and T. H. Hubing, “Imbalance Difference Model for Common-Mode Radiation from Printed Circuit Boards,” IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat., vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 150–156, Feb. 2011.
- C. Su and T. H. Hubing, “Calculating Radiated Emissions Due to I/O Line Coupling on Printed Circuit Boards Using the Imbalance Difference Method,” IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat., vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 212-217, Feb. 2012.
- A. Sugiura and Y. Kami, “Generation and Propagation of Common-Mode Currents in a Balanced Two-Conductor Line,” IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat., vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 466–473, Apr. 2012.
- T. Matsushima and O. Wada, "Reduction of Common-mode Excitation on a Differential Transmission Line Bend by Imbalance Control," IEICE Communications Express, vol. 3, no. 10, pp. 295-299, Oct. 2014.
- L. Niu and T. Hubing, “Rigorous Derivation of Imbalance Difference Theory for Modeling Radiated Emission Problems,” IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat., vol. 57, no. 5, Oct. 2015, pp. 1021-1026.
- Y. Wakaduki, T. Watanabe, Y. Toyota, K. Iokibe, L. R. KOGA, and O. Wada, "Connector Model for Use in Common-mode Antenna Model Used to Estimate Radiation from Printed Circuit Boards with Board-to-board Connector," IEICE Transactions on Communications, Vol.E99-B, No.3, pp.695-702, 2016.3.
- A.M. Sayegh and M.Z.M. Jenu, “Prediction of common-mode radiation from cables attached to PCB using imbalance difference and asymmetrical dipole antenna models,” Electronics Letters, vol. 52, no. 8, 2016, pp. 585-587.

### Conference Publications

- T. Watanabe, O. Wada, Y. Toyota, and R. Koga, “Estimation of common-mode EMI caused by a signal line in the vicinity of ground edge on a PCB,” in 2002 IEEE Int. Symp. Electromagn. Compat., 2002, vol. 1, pp. 113–118.
- T. Watanabe, M. Kishimoto, S. Matsunaga, T. Tanimoto, R. Koga, O. Wada, and A. Namba, “Equivalence of two calculation methods for common-mode excitation on a printed circuit board with narrow ground plane,” in 2003 IEEE Int. Symp. Electromagn. Compat., 2003, vol. 1, pp. 22–27.
- T. Watanabe, A. Namba, H. Fujihara, Y. Toyota, O. Wada, and R. Koga, "High-speed Common-mode Prediction Method for PCBs Having a Signal Line Close to The Ground Edge," in 2003 IEEE Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility. Symposium Record (Cat. No.03CH37446), pp. 28-33 vol.1, Boston, MA, USA, 2003.
- Y. Sakai, T. Watanabe, O. Wada, T. Matsushima, K. Iokibe, Y. Toyota, and R. Koga, "EMI Antenna Model Based on Common-mode Potential Distribution for Fast Prediction of Radiated Emission," in 2006 IEEE International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility, pp. 280-284, Portland, OR, USA, 2006.
- Y. Toyota, A. Sadatoshi, T. Watanabe, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and O. Wada, “Prediction of electromagnetic emissions from PCBs with interconnections through common-mode antenna model,” in 2007 18th International Zurich Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility, 2007, pp. 107–110.
- Y. Toyota, Y. Sakai, M. Torigoe, R. Koga, T. Watanabe, and O. Wada, Fast and Accurate Estimation of Radiated Emission from Printed Circuit Board Using Common-mode Antenna Model Based on Common-Mode Potential Distribution, 2007 IEEE International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC2007), WE-PM-2-SS-2, Honolulu, Hawaii USA, 2007.7.8-13
- T. Watanabe, T. Matsushima, Y. Toyota, R. Koga, and O. Wada, "Reduction of Common-mode Radiation by Terminating Guard Trace with Resistors," in 2009 International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC'09/Kyoto), pp. 97-100, Kyoto, Japan, 2009 .
- Y. Toyota, T. Matsushima, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and T. Watanabe, “Experimental validation of imbalance difference model to estimate common-mode excitation in PCBs,” in 2008 IEEE International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility, 2008, pp. 1–6.
- Tohlu Matsushima, Tetsushi Watanabe, Yoshitaka Toyota, Ryuji Koga, and Osami Wada, “Prediction of EMI from two-channel differential signaling system based on imbalance difference model,” 2010 IEEE Int. Symp. Electromagn. Compat., Santa Clara, 2010, pp. 413-418.
- Y. Toyota, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and T. Watanabe, "Mode-equivalent Modelling of System Consisting of Transmission Lines with Different Imbalance Factors," in 2011 Asia-Pacific International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility (APEMC), pp.676-679, Jeju Island, Korea, 2011.
- K. Sejima, Y. Toyota, K. Iokibe, L. R. Koga, and T. Watanabe, “Experimental model validation of mode-conversion sources introduced to modal equivalent circuit,” 2012 IEEE Int. Symp. Electromagn. Compat., pp. 492–497, Aug. 2012.
- T. Matsushima, O. Wada, T. Watanabe, Y. Toyota, and L. R. Koga, “Verification of common-mode-current prediction method based on imbalance difference model for single-channel differential signaling system,” in 2012 Asia-Pacific Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility, 2012, vol. 2, pp. 409–412.
- H. Al-Rubaye, K. Pararajasingam, and M. Kane, “Estimating radiated emissions from microstrip transmission lines based on the imbalance model,” in 2012 IEEE Electrical Design of Advanced Packaging and Systems Symposium (EDAPS), 2012, pp. 93–96.
- H. Kwak and T. H. Hubing, “Investigation of the imbalance difference model and its application to various circuit board and cable geometries,” in 2012 IEEE Int. Symp. Electromagn. Compat., 2012, pp. 273–278.
- T. Nobunaga，Y. Toyota, K. Iokibe, L. R. Koga, and T. Watanabe, "Evaluation of Pigtail Termination of STP cable Using Modal Equivalent Circuit of Four-conductor Transmission Systems," in 2013 International Symposium on Electromagnetic Theory (EMTS), pp.222-225, Hiroshima, 2013.
- Y. Toyota, K. Iokibe, and L. R. Koga, “Mode conversion caused by discontinuity in transmission line: From viewpoint of imbalance factor and modal characteristic impedance,” in 2013 IEEE Electrical Design of Advanced Packaging Systems Symposium (EDAPS), pp. 52-55, 2013.
- T. Matsushima and O. Wada, “A method of common-mode reduction based on imbalance difference model for differential transmission line bend,” 2013 IEEE Int. Symp. Electromagn. Compat., 2013, pp. 338-341.
- T. Hubing and L. Niu, “Application of the Imbalance Difference Method to the EMC Design of Automotive ECUs,” in 2014 IEEE Int. Symp. Electromagn. Compat., Tokyo, 2014, pp. 453-456.
- Y. Toyota, S. Kan, and K. Iokibe, "Modal Equivalent Circuit of Bend Discontinuity in Differential Transmission Lines," in 2014 International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility" (EMC'14/Tokyo), pp.117-120, Tokyo, Japan, 2014.
- Y. Toyota, K. Iokibe, and T. Watanabe, "Guard trace with periodic structure taking signal integrity into account," in 2014 IEEE Electrical Design of Advanced Packaging & Systems Symposium (EDAPS), pp.77-80, Bangalore, India, 2014.
- Y. Toyota, K. Iokibe, and L. Koga, "Electromagnetic Immunity Analysis Using Modal-equivalent Circuit in Cable Interconnection System," in 2015 Asia-Pacific International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility in Singapore (APEMC), pp. 716-719, Taipei, Taiwan, 2015.
- K. Takariki, K. Iokibe, and Y. Toyota, "Formulation of Mode Conversion in Differential Transmission Lines with Bend Discontinuity," in 2015 IEEE Electrical Design of Advanced Packaging & Systems Symposium (EDAPS), pp. 152-155, Seoul, Korea, 2015.
- Mengxi Liu, Junjun Wang, and Xuyue Wu, “Analysis of the radiation from a pigtail-terminated coaxial cable using the imbalance difference model,” 2016 Progress in Electromagnetic Research Symposium (PIERS), 2016, pp. 2179-2183.

### Technical Reports

- C. Su and T. Hubing, “Imbalance Difference Model for Common-Mode Radiation from Printed Circuit Boards,” Clemson Vehicular Electronics Laboratory Technical Report CVEL-09-008, Oct. 5, 2009.
- H. Kwak and T. Hubing, “Investigation of the Imbalance Difference Model and its Application to Various Circuit Board and Cable Geometries,” CVEL-10-017.01, May 21, 2011.
- C. Su and T. Hubing, “Calculating Radiated Emissions due to I/O Line Coupling on Printed Circuit Boards using the Imbalance Difference Method,” CVEL-10-020, Apr. 4, 2011.
- L. Niu and T. Hubing, “Rigorous Derivation of Imbalance Difference Theory for Modeling Radiated Emission Problems,” CVEL-14-056, Dec. 20, 2014.
- L. Niu and T. Hubing, “Modeling the Conversion between Differential Mode and Common Mode Propagation in Transmission Lines,” CVEL-14-055, Mar. 1, 2015.
- L. Niu and T. Hubing, “Modeling the Loading Impedance on Differential-Mode Signals Due to Radiated Emissions,” CVEL-14-066, Mar. 1, 2015.
- J. Ahn and T. Hubing, “Application of Imbalance Difference Method to the EMC Design of Automotive Wire Harnesses,” CVEL-18-072, Mar. 15, 2018.
- J. Ahn and T. Hubing, “Effect of Ground Proximity on Common-mode Currents in Wire Harnesses,” CVEL-18-071, April 18, 2018.